spraaq írta:a kifejezést az oroszok kezdték el használ 1950-60 körül ami azért nem túl biztató
The term adaptogen, or resistogen, as it is usually called, was created by Nikolai Lazarev in the former Soviet Union to classify a group of substances that can improve the body’s nonspecific resistance after being exposed to various stressing factors, promoting a state of adaptation to the exceptional situation (Brekhman & Dardymov, 1969). Israel Brekhman, his successor, established that a plant should meet three requirements in order to be considered an adaptogen (Brekhman & Dardymov, 1969): i) to be innocuous and not to disturb the body functions more than necessary. This means that an adaptogen should not produce effect on a healthy individual not submitted to stress; ii) to show a nonspecific activity, that is, to increase the body resistance in relation to harmful agents such as physical (heat, cold, variations of pressure, etc.), chemical (poisons and toxic substances) and biological (infections by viruses and bacteria); iii) to have a normalizing influence on a pathological state, independently of the nature of that state and the change in the previous pathological state (for instance, increase resistance to both heat and cold, aiming at balancing the body in adverse situations). Even though these criteria are still mentioned, they are now being questioned, since the advances regarding this issue demonstrate, among other things, that adaptogens might indeed promote biochemical alterations in healthy individuals. Moreover, the way they are formulated, such concepts are considered vague and imprecise, therefore making it difficult to define whether the plants considered adaptogens today actually meet the three criteria.
Stress research in laboratory animals has assumed an important role in understanding the biological and behavioral consequences of external or internal stressors, which threaten to perturb homeostatis and may induce a number of clinical diseases when the body fails to counteract the stress situations. A variety of stress situations have been employed to investigate the consequences of stress and to evaluate antistress agents. The pharmacological assessment of adaptogens typically includes evaluation of their stimulating, tonic and stress protective effects in different screening models in which animals are challenged to acute and chronic stress conditions. Stress mediators and biochemical markers involved in mechanism of adaptogens may be evaluated using experimental procedures.
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